Wednesday, June 28, 2017
Email BuildingPhysics info@buildingphysics.co.za : Tel: +27 11 4544 857 : Cell: +27 83 726 9593

Site Search

Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity

sky_scraperBuilding Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

By Evan Mills, Ph.D.

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

"The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver, if not exceed, the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, commissioning identifies the almost inevitable “drift” from where things should be and puts the building back on course. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to quality assurance, rather than a technology per se. Although commissioning has earned increased recognition in recent years—even a toehold in Wikipedia—it remains an enigmatic practice whose visibility severely lags its potential.

Over the past decade, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has built the world’s largest compilation and meta-analysis of commissioning experience in commercial buildings. Since our last report (Mills et al. 2004) the database has grown from 224 to 643 buildings (all located in the United States, and spanning 26 states), from 30 to 100 million square feet of floorspace, and from $17 million to $43 million in commissioning expenditures. The recorded cases of new-construction commissioning took place in buildings representing $2.2 billion in total construction costs (up from 1.5 billion). The work of many more commissioning providers (18 versus 37) is represented in this study, as is more evidence of energy and peak-power savings as well as cost-effectiveness. We now translate these impacts into avoided greenhouse gases and provide new indicators of cost-effectiveness. We also draw attention to the specific challenges and opportunities for high-tech facilities such as labs, cleanrooms, data centers, and healthcare facilities.

The results are compelling. We developed an array of benchmarks for characterizing project performance and cost-effectiveness. The median normalized cost to deliver commissioning was $0.30/ft2 for existing buildings and $1.16/ft2 for new construction (or 0.4% of the overall construction cost). The commissioning projects for which data are available revealed over 10,000 energy-related problems, resulting in 16% median whole-building energy savings in existing buildings and 13% in new construction, with payback time of 1.1 years and 4.2 years, respectively. In terms of other cost-benefit indicators, median benefit-cost ratios of 4.5 and 1.1, and cash-on-cash returns of 91% and 23% were attained for existing and new buildings, respectively. High-tech buildings were particularly cost-effective, and saved higher amounts of energy due to their energy-intensiveness. Projects with a comprehensive approach to commissioning attained nearly twice the overall median level of savings and five-times the savings of the least-thorough projects.

It is noteworthy that virtually all existing building projects were cost-effective by each metric (0.4 years for the upper quartile and 2.4 years for the lower quartile), as were the majority of new-construction projects (1.5 years and 10.8 years, respectively). We also found high cost-effectiveness for each specific measure for which we have data. Contrary to a common perception, cost-effectiveness is often achieved even in smaller buildings.

Thanks to energy savings valued more than the cost of the commissioning process, associated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions come at “negative” cost. In fact, the median cost of conserved carbon is negative— -$110 per tonne for existing buildings and -$25/tonne for new construction—as compared with market prices for carbon trading and offsets in the +$10 to +$30/tonne range.

Key findings in a nutshell

• Commissioning is arguably the single-most cost-effective strategy for reducing energy, costs, and greenhouse-gas emissions in buildings today.
• Energy savings tend to persist well over at least a 3- to 5- year timeframe, but data over longer time horizons are not available.
• Median commissioning costs: $0.30/ft2 and $1.16/ft2 for existing buildings and new construction, respectively (and 0.4% of total construction costs for new buildings).
• Median whole-building energy savings: 16% and 13%.
• Median payback times:1.1 and 4.2 years.
• Median benefit-cost ratios: 4.5 and 1.1, cash-on-cash returns of 91% and 23%.
• Large reductions in greenhouse-gas emissions are achieved, at a negative cost of -$110 and -$25/tonne CO2-equivalent.
• High-tech buildings particularly cost-effective, and saved large amounts of energy due to their energy-intensiveness.
• The database incorporates the work of 37 commissioning providers.
• Projects with a comprehensive approach to commissioning attained nearly twice the overall median level of savings, and five-times the savings of projects with a constrained approach.
• Non-energy benefits are extensive and often offset part or all of the commissioning cost.
• Median commissioning costs: $0.30/ft2 and $1.16/ft2 for existing buildings and new construction, respectively (and 0.4% of total construction costs for new buildings).
• Median whole-building energy savings: 16% and 13%.
• Median payback times:1.1 and 4.2 years.
• Median benefit-cost ratios: 4.5 and 1.1, cash-on-cash returns of 91% and 23%.

Download Evan Mills's presentation from here. File size - 5344kb.

 

info@buildingphysics.co.za - Tel: +27 11 4544 857 - Cell: + 27 83 726 9593

Copyright © 2009 BuildingPhysics CC - Disclaimer

Login Form